Discovery Institute fellow: The Protestant Reformation, 500 years on

Original Article

When Martin Luther posted 95 theses on the church door in Wittenberg, Germany in 1517, 500 years ago this October 31, he probably had no idea what forces he was unleashing. Although his intention was to spur reform within the Catholic Church rather than breaking off and starting a new church, he ended up accomplishing both.

America was first settled by diverse Protestant groups and remains inextricably linked to the Reformation. To understand how the Reformation still speaks to us today, let’s revisit its core ideas and central figures.

The drama starts with Luther, who after being expelled from the Catholic Church stood trial and stated publicly that it was wrong for anyone to act against his or her conscience. With obedience to authority having been the norm for most of recorded history, Luther appeared to be either a fool or a subversive for proclaiming that liberty of conscience was the proper basis for religious and political life.

After Luther, it was John Calvin who advanced the depth and breadth of the Reformation. Calvin’s “resistance theory,” which justified the people’s right to disobey unjust rule, would later find expression in the Declaration of Independence. After the American colonies won their independence, the real work of forming an effective government began with the Constitutional Convention in 1787 — no easy task for the 55 delegates who convened in the midst of a depressed economy, rampant inflation of the Continental dollar, territorial threats, and even talk of secession by New England.

By today’s standards, it was a miracle that the convention delegates could muster the tolerance and big-mindedness to agree on substantive terms of the new Constitution in just four months. But as good as that Constitution was (and is), it had to be ratified by the states to become law. Fear of corruption and abuse of power from a central government caused several key states to withhold support until the Constitution was amended with a Bill of Rights — starting with the all-important First Amendment of protecting and tolerating freedom of speech, press and religion.

This being the 500th anniversary of the Reformation, it’s an appropriate occasion for a check-up on those freedoms embodied in the First Amendment.

America’s culture has been progressively enveloped by “political correctness” — which restricts discussion to stereotypes and a “lens” by which all social and political reality should be seen. This has been advanced by manipulating the meaning of language, while also conditioning the public to ignore reality and common sense and accept distorted and even false narratives.

Because political correctness narrows the range of political thought, its adherents tend to be intolerant — seeking to shut down and silence people with whom they disagree on college campuses across the country, clamoring for removal of historic statues and monuments, and even demanding people with opposing views on such subjects as climate change and gay marriage be silenced, fined or arrested.

Today’s problems are also compounded by social media, which has many benefits, but tends to promote groupthink conformity that marginalizes and silences opposing and independent voices. Because most people avoid being criticized or denounced, there is a “spiral of silence” on social media, which reinforces the default groupthink of what is trending and what appears to be the social and cultural majority.

History shows that the great leaps forward were almost always spurred by individuals who had original ideas and the courage to challenge the assumptions of their times. May this 500th anniversary of the Reformation be an occasion to commit to reviving a passion to protect our nation’s freedoms and rekindle the liberty of conscience that elevates tolerance, original thinking, courage and character.

Scott S. Powell

Senior Fellow, Center on Wealth and Poverty
Scott Powell has enjoyed a career split between theory and practice with over 25 years of experience as an entrepreneur and rainmaker in several industries. He joins the Discovery Institute after having been a fellow at Stanford’s Hoover Institution for six years and serving as a managing partner at a consulting firm, RemingtonRand. His research and writing has resulted in over 250 published articles on economics, business and regulation. Scott Powell graduated from the University of Chicago with honors (B.A. and M.A.) and received his Ph.D. in political and economic theory from Boston University in 1987, writing his dissertation on the determinants of entrepreneurial activity and economic growth.