July 21, 2009
West Coast major metro regions face growing population, plus projected increases in total vehicle miles traveled and freight volume. Traffic congestion already exacts a high toll, and without serious intervention will worsen many-fold, harming economic growth and quality of life in coming decades. That means ameliorative strategies and cross-boundary collaboration between the states are more important than ever. So, top transportation advisory panels for California, Oregon and Washington will this week hold their first-ever joint meetings, in Portland and Seattle. In a Washington State Transportation Commission press release, chair Carol Moser (below, right) says:
"These joint meetings are the first ever to occur between the West Coast commissions. These types of engagements are important for building relationships and alliances between the West Coast states. They provide the opportunity for us to partner and identify our shared transportation priorities, which we...intend to continue using as leverage in influencing our collective Congressional delegations in securing federal transportation funding for the tri-state area."
When all three commissions meet Wednesday, July 22 in Portland, one focus will be the Columbia River Crossing bridge project planned on I-5 to replace the old, dangerous and often congested twin spans connecting Clark County, Washington and Portland. The new structure will include a light rail extension, bike and pedestrian paths, and will be electronically tolled with higher rates at peak hours. The CRC project could lead to a deeper discussion of regional highway corridor tolling in metro Portland, according to some Oregon lawmakers and Portland-area planners. That approach is making inroads in metro Puget Sound, with several related state studies underway. At the Portland meeting the three commissions will also discuss the looming federal surface transportation funding re-authorization bill. The big six-year package will likely be delayed as long as 18 months from its expiration this fall, as the Obama administration and key Congressional members slog through the difficult and politically risky work of figuring out how to replace the failing federal gas tax.
For the second year running, a stopgap infusion will be required to keep solvent the federal Highway Trust Fund, which relies on the federal gas tax. A hike in the by-the-gallon tax is possible when the bill is finally re-drawn, but there is broad consensus its primacy is ending. The gas tax's ineffectiveness has been revealed after system maintenance and expansion badly lagged during four-and-a-half decades of robust traffic growth, plus related wear-and-tear. Other more recent constraints on gas tax revenues include continually improving vehicle mileage, a trend expected to accelerate with growing production of alternative-fueled vehicles.
Many innovations are likely in the new bill, including greater funding and policy emphases on transit, biking, urban density, tolling, vehicle mileage taxes, private investment, and - the West Coast state transportation commissions hope - freight mobility.
Also on the Portland agenda: federal funding for improved inter-city and high-speed rail; and a presentation on electronic tolling projects in the state of Washington. The meeting will be preceded by an informal discussion session among commission members, also open to the public.
The Thursday, July 23 meeting in Seattle between the Washington and California commissions will highlight several surface transportation priorities the two states share.
Continue reading "
West Coast States Ramp Up Joint Transpo Agenda
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June 30, 2008
Last Thursday June 26, our Cascadia Center hosted the West Coast Tolling and Traffic Management Workshop at the Bell Harbor Conference Center on Seattle's waterfront. Speakers came from up and down the West Coast, Washington, D.C. and London to share with a capacity crowd the latest developments in regional tolling policy, tolling and traffic management technology, and transportation public-private partnerships.
First, our own quick-take on the event. Then some handy links to media coverage, and speaker PowerPoints.
Democratic State Senator Ed Murray, a member of the legislative majority in Olympia and the ranking majority member of the Senate Transportation Committee, voiced strong support for public-private partnerships as one important tool to help fund the approximately $50 billion backlog of projects in Central Puget Sound. Sarah Clark of Partnerships BC accented the province's leading role in transportation PPPs.
Murray also reiterated his call for regional transportation governance to unify policy, implementation and decision-making. Seattle City Council Member Jan Drago, like Murray, emphasized that a "systems," or regional approach to looming electronic tolling is essential, to avoid diversions from a tolled highway to an untolled one in the same corridor. Murray stressed that tolling revenue can and should be used to help fund transit.
Gary Gallegos of the San Diego Association of Governments discussed the success of time-variable electronic tolling on I-15 and stressed that far from being "Lexus Lanes" for the rich as some critics contend, the High Occupancy and Toll (HOT) lanes are used by all, because time is money. Art James of the Oregon Department of Transportation provided a valuable and at time humorous, historical look at the cultural resistance of Oregonians to tolling but concluded that the Columbia River Crossing project may prove an exception.
Another take-away - underscored in compelling detail by panelists from CalDOT, WSDOT, Microsoft, Inrix and Booz Allen Hamilton - was that the technology for tolling and traffic management is advancing at a fast pace, increasing the likelihood that tolling will become convenient and widespread in highway corridors; and will make more sophisticated decision-making tools available to drivers for trip timing, routing, and payment.
Full TVW Coverage
Here are video segments of the full proceedings from TVW, Washington's public affairs channel. Moderator was longtime Cascadia Center associate Glenn Pascall, an economist and columnist with the Puget Sound Business Journal.
Luncheon speakers - Mark Aggar, Microsoft; David Horner, USDOT; State Senator Ed Murray; State Rep. Doug Ericksen; Seattle City Council Member Jan Drago.
"Technology Transforming Transportation." Former U.S. Senator Slade Gorton; Jack Opiola, Booz Allen Hamilton, London, U.K.; Bryan Mistele, President and CEO, Inrix, Kirkland, Wash.
State and provincial perspectives - Dick Ford, Washington Transportation Commission; David Dye, WSDOT; Art James, ODOT; Randy Iwasaki and Greg Larson, CalDOT; Sarah Clark, Partnerships BC.
Regional perspectives - Aubrey Davis and Matthew Kitchen, Puget Sound Regional Council; Gary Gallegos, San Diego Association of Governments; Andrew Fremier, Bay Area Toll Authority; Rex Burkholder, Tri-Met (the regional transportation governing body for Portland).
User perspectives - AAA and trucking industry representatives.
(TVW technical and programming notes. The video segments can also be accessed here. They may take a few minutes to download. They should play on PCs and Macs, but if there are issues, you may need an updated version of your video player software - there will be a notice and link to a download page at the bottom of the TVW segment page. You will then need to download and install the recommended video player. To watch the segments on cable TV instead of your computer, check TVW's schedule at their main page. In the upper-left hand corner, under "Schedule" are the current day's and week's schedules and the channel locator.)
Speaker PowerPoints are here.
Media Coverage Links
The Seattle Post-Intelligencer's veteran political columnist Joel Connelly gave this report. Several major radio stations covered the workshop. KPLU-FM public radio's Liam Moriarty filed a story titled, "Are Privately Operated Highways In Your Future?" KIRO AM 710's Erin Covey also attended and her reports aired throughout the afternoon, evening and following morning, including KIRO-AM's "The Big Story At Six." The day before the event, Cascadia Center Director Bruce Agnew and Microsoft's Environmental Technologist Mark Aggar were interviewed on KIRO-AM 710's Dave Ross Show about traffic management technology (Aggar); and tolling, transit and public-private partnerships (Agnew).
All conference topics and the latest on plug-in electric hybrid vehicles and alternative energy will be featured at our Sept. 4-Sept. 5 "Beyond Oil: Transforming Transportation" conference at Microsoft's Redmond campus.
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September 20, 2007
Our Cascadia Center held a leadership forum Weds. Sept. 19 titled "Greening The Highway from Baja to B.C.," emphasizing the need for a unified West Coast effort to cut greenhouse gas emissions and congestion in the I-5 corridor through increased use of alternative fuels; diesel emission reduction programs; and on-board and in-roadway technology to save truckers and motorists time and fuel. Here's our discussion brief on the initiative, and here's a related radio story (and transcript) featuring Cascadia's director Bruce Agnew.
From the discussion brief:
An important opportunity is emerging for a concerted West Coast strategy to unify alternative fuel infrastructure and green vehicle development, diesel fuel emission reduction, and intelligent transportation system technologies. Together these could yield substantial environmental and economic benefits while providing a model for other major U.S. highway corridors. An additional consideration is that congestion pricing, though not part of the West Coast Green Highway initiative, would boost congestion relief and greenhouse gas reduction, particularly if pursued on a multi-state, I-5 corridor basis.
We expect to have a white paper published in coming months on greening the I-5 corridor. We'll keep you posted as this effort continues to unfold.
UPDATE: TVW coverage. Washington state's government and public affairs channel, TVW, taped and broadcast the entire "Greening The Highway" program of Sept. 19, 2007. Here are the three video segments as they aired on TVW. You will need to have either Windows Media or Real Player installed on your computer to view. For any additional playback tips, go to TVW's Streaming Help Page.
"Greening The Highway," Segment 1 - Bruce Agnew, Cascadia Center; Sharon Banks, Cascade Sierra Solutions; Matt Rosenberg, Cascadia Center.
LINK: Segment 1.
"Greening The Highway," Segment 2 - Peter Murchie, U.S. EPA; Allison Seton, Hydrogen + Fuel Cells Canada; Jeff Doyle, WSDOT; Allison Hamilton, ODOT.
LINK: Segment 2.
"Greening The Highway," Segment 3 - Colette Brooks, BioBling/Big Imagination Co./SoCal Biodiesel Co-op; Paul Landry, B.C. Trucking Assn.; Janet Ray, AAA Washington.
LINK: Segment 3.
TECHNORATI TAGS: >GREEN HIGHWAY, BRITISH COLUMBIA, WASHINGTON, OREGON, CALIFORNIA, ALTERNATIVE FUELS, PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES, DIESEL FUEL EMISSIONS, INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS>
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May 30, 2007
California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and British Columbia Premier Gordon Campbell meet tomorrow in Vancouver to strategize on greenhouse gas reductions. The Governator has made climate change Priority One for his administration, winning new state goals to lower carbon dioxide emissions in coming decades, and recruiting other Western U.S. governors and Campbell to commit to similar targets. Campbell and Schwarzenegger have also been talking up a so-called "hydrogen highway" stretching from California to B.C. The idea is that in the future, lower-polluting cars powered by hydrogen fuel cells will become prevalent, and an infrastructure of hydrogen fueling stations will be established along major north-south corridors such as I-5 and Route 99. Campbell has announced plans for such a network within B.C., and says he hopes one day to see that extended the length of the West Coast.
Let's back up for a quick minute here. A growing number of political conservatives have joined with moderates and liberals to push for cleaner, greener transportation to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and control risk of further acceleration in global climate change. But in "green transportation" there is as yet no one silver bullet solution. Expanded mass transit is part of the puzzle - if it's convenient, speedy and pencils out, cost-wise. Congestion pricing including tolls, plus car-pooling and telecommuting all figure in, as well.
But behavioral change can only accomplish so much. People are still going to drive cars and trucks. Abundantly, as nearly all urban region traffic studies predict. To reduce the carbon footprint that results, what's needed is continued research, development and deployment of a portfolio of clean transportation technologies, including biofuels, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and hydrogen fuel cells. The true economic and environmental costs of each need more scrutiny.
In the national Canadian daily The Globe and Mail, Sean McCarthy reports:
...Mr. Schwarzenegger's....passion for hydrogen has been waning, as it becomes clear that the ambitious vision for a hydrogen future faces serious delays and ongoing hurdles. Mr. Schwarzenegger is now promoting a "low carbon fuel standard" that would peg hydrogen as just one of several technologies manufacturers could use to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions and other pollutants.
....Oregon and Washington have yet to commit to a hydrogen future, leaving a 1,400-kilometre gap between the last hydrogen fuelling station in British Columbia and the most northerly one in California. And unlike B.C. and California, those two states don't have indigenous fuel-cell industries to promote.
...the hydrogen car still faces some major challenges...The fuel cell typically lasts about a tenth of the lifespan of a traditional internal combustion engine. Fuel-cell vehicles themselves are prohibitively expensive because they are made of high-end materials like platinum and because the electrochemical process that creates the hydrogen is not as efficient as it could be...Hydrogen...typically occurs in combination with other elements, including with oxygen as water, and with carbon in fossil fuels. As a result, the hydrogen has to be manufactured, typically using electricity produced from a variety of sources including emissions-heavy coal, but also emissions-free hydroelectric.
In the end, the alternative fuel commercial infrastructure will have to follow market decisions made by motorists, and businesses which invest in vehicle fleets. It's probably not too far-fetched to predict that biofuels and electricity are going to figure into North America's alt-fuel future at least as prominently - if not more so - than hydrogen fuel cells; and that operators of truck stops and fueling stations along major interstate corridors will figure out ways to respond to those choices.
UPDATE: 14:10 p.m.: Bruce Agnew, Director of our Cascadia Center For Regional Development, will appear live on-air tomorrow between 10:30 a.m. and 11:00 a.m. on the Bill Good Show, CKNW-AM 980 in Vancouver, to discuss West Coast alternative fuel infrastructure options. Listen live on the Web - just go to the station's site: and under "Station" on the left-hand side of the main page, click on "Listen To CKNW."
TECHNORATI TAGS: >HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS, HYDROGEN HIIGHWAY, ALTERNATIVE FUELS, ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER, GORDON CAMPBELL, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CALIFORNIA, WASHINGTON, OREGON>
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April 6, 2007
Last updated August 25, 2008
The research, it just keeps coming. On this page, we'll compile links to key studies and reports on innovation in transportation.
MANAGING, PLANNING & FUNDING TRANSPORTATION
Cascadia Center Reports
"Lessons In Public-Private Partnerships & Climate Change: What British Columbia Taught California, And What Washington Can Still Learn," 10/07.
"A Tale Of Three Cities: How San Diego, Denver and Vancouver, B.C. Raised Major Regional Funds For Transportation," Doug Hurley, Cascadia Center For Regional Development, 9/06.
"Travel Value Pricing: Better Traffic Operations Management & New Revenue For The Puget Sound Region," John S. Niles, for Cascadia Center, 4/06.
"Transportation Working Group Recommendations," Transportation Working Group, Cascadia Center For Regional Development, 2/15/05.
Transportation Working Group background, members, and resource book.
"An Institutional Conundrum - A Simplified Overview Of Metropolitan Institutional Reform Applied To Transportation In The Puget Sound Region," Deb Eddy, Cascadia Center For Regional Development, 2004.
"How Do We Get There From Here? A Transportation Future For The Puget Sound Region," Bruce Agnew & Bruce Chapman, Cascadia Center For Regional Development, 2003. View the video, as aired on Seattle Channel, 5/20/05.
"Just Pricing: The Distributional Effects Of Congestion Pricing and Sales Taxes," Brian Taylor, UCLA Institute Of Transportation Studies; Lisa Schweitzer, School Of Policy, Planning And Development, University Of Southern California, 5/08
"Transportation For Tomorrow," National Surface Transportation Policy & Revenue Study Commission, 1/08.
"Running On Empty - 2007 Annual Report," Washington Transportation Commission, 12/07.
"Building New Roads Through Public-Private Partnerships: Frequently Asked Questions," Leonard C. Gilroy, Robert W. Poole, Jr., Peter Samuel, Geoffrey Segal, Reason Foundation, 11/07.
"Review Of Congressional Earmarks Within Department Of Transportation Programs," Office Of The Inspector General, U.S. DOT, 9/7/07.
"Case Studies Of Transportation Public-Private Partnerships In The United States," Aecom Consult Team, for U.S. DOT, Federal Highway Administration, 7/7/07.
"Case Studies Of Transportation Public-Private Partnerships Around The World," Aecom Consult Team, for U.S. DOT, Federal Highway Administration, 7/7/07.
Draft Vision 2040 Puget Sound Regional Council, 7/07.
"Lake Washington Urban Partnership," Washington State Department of Transportation, 4/30/07.
"Report On SR 520 Bridge Replacement And HOV Project Funding Alternatives," Seattle-Northwest Securities Corporation, Montague DeRose & Associates, LLC, 3/28/07.
"Destination 2030 - Taking An Alternative Route," Washington State Transportation Center/Booz Allen Hamilton (For King County Executive), 3/05/07.
"Overview Of National Strategy To Reduce Congestion On America's Transportation Network," USDOT, 3/07.
"Public-Private Partnerships For Toll Highways," Robert W. Poole, Reason Foundation, Testimony To U.S. House Committee On Transportation & Infrastructure, Subcommittee On Highways & Transit, 2/13/07.
"Report On The Transportation Innnovative Partnerships Program," Washington Transportation Commission, 1/07.
"Regional Transportation Commission Final Report," Regional Transportation Commission (of Puget Sound), 12/31/06.
"Washington Transportation Plan 2007-2026," Washington Transportation Commission, 11/06.
"Reducing Congestion In Atlanta: A Bold New Approach To Mobility," Robert W. Poole, Reason Foundation, 11/06.
"Public-Private Partnerships & The Development Of Transport Infrastructure: Trends On Both Sides Of The Atlantic," Benjamin G. Perez, PB Consult Inc., James W. March, Federal Highway Administration; 9/06.
"Transportation Finance At The Ballot Box: Voters Support Increased Investment & Choice," Center For Transportation Excellence, 8/06.
"Building Roads To Reduce Congestion In America's Cities: How Much & At What Cost?," David Hartgren, M. Gregory Fields & Robert W. Poole, Reason Foundation, 8/06; (WA state congestion analysis, from study).
"Why Mobility Matters," Ted Balaker, Reason Foundation, 8/06.
"Current Toll Road Activity In The U.S.: A Survey & Analysis," Benjamin Pereze, Steve Lockwood, for U.S. DOT, Federal Highway Administration, 8/06.
"Remarks Of Pat Jacobsen - CEO, Greater Vancouver Transportation Authority - To House & Senate Transportation Committees of Washington State Legislature, 1/19/06.
"Traffic Congestion & Reliability: Trends & Advanced Strategies For Congestion Mitigation," Cambridge Systematics & Texas Transportation Institute (for Federal Highway Administration), 9/1/05.
"2005 Urban Mobility Report," Texas Transportation Institute, 2005.
"Unclogging America's Highways - Effective Relief For Highway Bottlenecks," American Highway Users Alliance, 2/04
HUBS, CORRIDORS & GATEWAYS
" Canada: A Macroeconomic Study of the United States' Most Important Trade Partner,"U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service, Updated 9/15/06
Canadian Embassy State Trade Fact Sheet 2006, Canadian Embassy, 2006.
Canada/U.S. Regional Economies, Canadian-American Border Trade Alliance.
"Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative: The Basics," U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
Resolution Of The West Coast Corridor Coalition, 11/03.
"From B.C. To B.C. - And Beyond - the Story Of The West Coast Corridor Coalition."
"Spatial Concepts & Cross Border Governance Strategies," Susan E. Clarke, University of Colorado, (presented to EURA Conference On Urban & Spatial Policies), 4/02.
"The Character of Non-Governmental Transborder Organizations In The Cascadia Region of North America," Lawrence Douglas Taylor Hansen, Revista Mexicana De Estudios Canadienses, 2/02.
SURFACE & MARINE TRANSPORTATION
Cascadia Center Reports
"Testimony In Support Of King County Passenger-Only Ferry District," Matt Rosenberg, 11/13/07.
"Alaskan Way Replacement: Alternative Approaches," Ove Arup & Partners, for Cascadia Center, 11/06.
"A New Vision For Developing Transit For Livable Cities." Enrique Penalosa, former
mayor of Bogota, Columbia speaks at a Cascadia Center co-sponsored event on implementation of Bogota's TransMileno Bus Rapid Transit system. Seattle Channel video, 9/27/06.
"Statement of Tom Till to Washington Transportation Commission On Amtrak & Related Issues, Including Availability of Federal Funding," 1/18/06.
"King County Passenger-Only Ferries Project Briefing Paper," IBI Group, for King County Executive, 11/7/07.
Puget Sound Regional Council Passenger-Only Ferry Study, 2007 (ongoing).
Chapter 7, "I-405 Plan: Transit and HOV", in "I-405 Congestion Relief & Bus Rapid Transit Projects - Final Recommendations Report," WSDOT. (See "I-405 BRT Service").
BNSF Corridor Preservation Study, Puget Sound Regional Council, 2/27/07.
Statewide Rail Capacity and System Needs Study, Washington State Transportation Commission, 12/06.
Columbia River Crossing Project Alternatives Page.
Willamette River Ferry Feasibility Study, City Of Portland Department of Transportation, 2006.
Waterborne Transit Policy Study, King County Department of Transportation, August, 2005.
Rich Passage Passenger-Only Ferry Study, Phase I, WSDOT, Federal Transit Administration, 4/05.
"Report Card For America's Infrastructure," American Society Of Civil Engineers, 2005.
TECHNOLOGY & ENERGY
Cascadia Center Reports
Speaker Presentations At Cascadia/Microsoft/Idaho National Laboratory "Beyond Oil: Transforming Transportation" conference, 9/4/08 and 9/5/08, Redmond, Wash. (Topics included electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, renewable energy, traffic management systems and technology, transit. Many of these files are very large and may take several minutes to open/download depending on your internet connection).
"Greening The Highway From Baja To B.C. - A Discussion Brief," Matt Rosenberg, 9/19/07.
"Replacing Oil With Electricity And Biofuels In Transportation: The Convergence Of Technology And Public Policy," Steve Marshall, 8/7/07.
Speaker Presentations at Cascadia-Microsoft "Jump Start To A Secure Clean Energy Future" Conference on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Alternative Fuels, 5/7/07
Roger Duncan, Austin Energy/Plug-In Partners (4.78 MB)
Mark Duvall, Electric Power Research Institute (1.13 MB)
Andrew A. Frank, University of California/Davis (1.33 MB)
K.C. Golden, Climate Solutions (1.81 MB)
David Horner, U.S. Dept. of Transportation (700 KB)
Michael Kintner-Meyer, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (1.91 MB)
Felix Kramer, CalCars.org (708 KB)
John M. Miller, Maxwell Technologies (496 KB)
Philip Mote, University of Washington (3.88 MB)
Tim Murphy, Idaho National Laboratory (674 KB)
Vic Parrish, Energy Northwest (494 KB)
Bill Reinert, Toyota USA (2.00 MB)
Bill Rogers, Idaho National Laboratory (1.05 MB)
Greg Rock, Green Car Company (82.9 KB)
Neil Schuster, Intelligent Transportation Society Of America (2.14 MB)
Rogelio Sullivan, U.S. Dept. of Energy (1.08 MB)
John Wellinghoff, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (4.23 MB)
Nick Zielinski, General Motors/Chevy Volt (1.79 MB)
"Basic Research Needs: Catalysis For Energy," (report from U.S. Dept. Of Energy Basic Energy Sciences Workshop), 8/07.
"Environmental Assessment of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles," Electric Power Research Institute, Natural Resources Defense Council, 7/07.
" Joint Science Academies Statement on Growth and Responsibility; Sustainability, Energy Efficiency and Climate Protection, for G8 Summit, 5/07.
"Fourth Assessment Report of Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change," United Nations, 4/07/07.
Annual Energy Outlook 2007 - With Projections To 2030," U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, 2/07.
Impacts Assessment of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles On Electric Utilities and Regional U.S. Power Grids; Michael Kintner-Meyer, Kevin Schneider, Robert Pratt; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 12/06.
"Alternative Fuels Study: A Report To Congress On Policy Options For Increasing The Use Of Alternative Fuels In Transit Vehicles," Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Dept. of Transportation, 12/06.
"Intelligent Transportation Systems Regional Architecture", Puget Sound Regional Council, IBI Group, 8/21/06.
"Future Visions," Washington Transportation Plan Update Process, WSDOT/Washington Transportation Commission, 6/17/05. (See pp. 27-34, "Intelligent Transportation Systems").
GridWise Program Overview, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
Technological Basis For GridWise, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
Primer On Vehicle-Infrastructure Integration, Intelligent Transportation Society Of America.
TECHNORATI TAGS: TRANSPORTATION, RESEARCH, TRANSPORTATION GOVERNANCE, TRAFFIC CONGESTION, TRANSIT, BUS RAPID TRANSIT, PASSENGER-ONLY FERRIES, TOLLS, PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS, SEATTLE, PUGET SOUND, CASCADIA, WEST COAST CORRIDOR, FRIEGHT, INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, ALTERNATIVE ENERGY, ALTERNATIVE FUELS, PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES>
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